What is a Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)?
A certified nursing assistant, or CNA, helps patients or clients with healthcare needs under the supervision of a Registered Nurse (RN) or a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). Also known as a Nursing Assistant (NA) a Patient Care Assistant (PCA) or a State Tested Nurse Aid (STNA), the individual who carries this title needs strong work ethic and ability, but issues of liability and legality prevent CNAs from performing certain procedures.
Role of the CNA
Your regular responsibilities as a nursing assistant will vary based on where you work or live. Nursing assistants can work in a wide variety of settings; nursing homes, hospitals, adult day care centers, personal homes and assisted living facilities all require nursing assistants to act as a helpful liaison between the RN or LPN and the patient. In many cases, the nursing assistant serves as the RN’s or LPN’s eyes and ears, and relays information between many patients and one or two RNs.
The nursing assistant fulfills basic quality-of-life needs for patients of any age, ethnicity or gender in residential nursing care facilities or outpatient clinics. Since nursing assistants have daily contact with patients, they are gatherers of vital information about the patients’ conditions, which they must then transmit to their supervisors. A CNA’s workload can become intense and fast-paced, but the human contact and ability to help those in medical need is a strong motivating factor. A desire to help people and compassion for patients can help a nurse’s assistant get through difficult days.
CNAs and the Nursing Industry
Because so many nurse’s aides want to move up into more involved medical careers, there is a high rate of turnover for CNA positions. This means it is fairly easy to find a job as a CNA, but many who start out in this career do not stay in it for life. The demand for CNAs is high, especially among those institutions that provide continuing care and assisted living for the elderly. Many health care facilities recognize the important role that a qualified and compassionate CNA can play in their quality of care offered. Additionally, a CNA can find support through organizations such as the National Association of Health Care Assistants.
Part of the reason there is such high turnover in CNA jobs is that CNAs can relatively easily get the necessary education to become RNs. Taking classes online while continuing to work is easier than ever, and there are many associate’s degree and bachelor’s degree programs that CNAs can use to get qualified for better paying work in the medical industry.
Careers Similar to Certified Nursing Assistant
CNAs, orderlies, psychiatric aides, and medical assistants are often lumped into one large category, and though the positions share some duties, there are key differences. The following are brief descriptions of each, to help you understand those differences and decide which fits you best.
- Orderlies: An orderly is a hospital attendant charged with non-medical patient care and general maintenance of systematic operations. Orderlies do not need a degree or certificate, and their interactions with patients are limited to non-treatment activities.
- Psychiatric Aides: This position is similar to a CNA, except for the work environment. Mental health wards and psychiatric hospitals have different routines than regular hospitals, and psychiatric aides have to be familiar with the unique privacy concerns and treatment needs of mental health patients.
- Medical Assistants: A medical assistant does not need a degree or certificate, and their main responsibilities are to help doctors and nurses with routine tasks. Medical assistants have less authority to participate in patient treatment than CNAs.
- Certified Nurse Assistants/Aides: CNAs can take vital signs and gather other patient data as well as administering basic care and tending to the hygiene needs of patients. Because of their state approved training and certification, CNAs have more authority and tend to be paid better than medical assistants, though many of their duties are similar.
Daily Responsibilities of CNAs
O-Net Online, a database linked to by The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), has detailed descriptions of the daily ups and downs of many jobs. Their description of a nursing or psychiatric aide’s daily duties includes:
- “Administer medications or treatments, such as catheterizations, suppositories, irrigations, enemas, massages, or douches, as directed by a physician or nurse.”
- “Clean and sanitize patient rooms, bathrooms, examination rooms, or other patient areas.”
- “Document or otherwise report observations of patient behavior, complaints, or physical symptoms to nurses.”
- “Apply clean dressings, slings, stockings, or support bandages, under direction of nurse or physician.”
Clearly, the duties of a CNA are not glamorous, but the position is highly suited for people who arei interested in helping to cure illness, mitigate misery, and generally add to the wellbeing of other people at the time they need it most.
CNA Pay and Benefits
CNAs typically earn an hourly wage rather than an annual salary, so your pay will fluctuate depending on whether you take a few hours here and there, steadily work full time, or constantly pull 60 hour weeks. According to The BLS, the median hourly wage for CNAs was $11.46 in May 2008. Median wages for similar or related careers were as follows:
- Medical Assistants: $28,300 (annual)
- Registered Nurses: $62,450 (annual)
- Home Health Aides: $9.22 (hourly)
Location can be a major influencing factor in how much you earn in any of the above jobs, and how many jobs are available in the first place. The chart below shows data from The BLS about how many medical assistant jobs are available in the five states with highest employment in that field.
How do I become a nursing assistant?
To obtain a nursing assistant job, a CNA most often needs to have at least a high school diploma, or GED, and at least some form of post-secondary nursing instruction. This can be obtained from a variety of institutions, including online schools, community colleges, trade schools, and so on. Students are then usually required to pass an examination for their certification.
While a degree is typically not required, it can help prepare students for their CNA responsibilities as well as help provide a path to career advancement later on. The following associate degrees in healthcare can help train students for nursing assistant positions:
Education, Licensure, and Advancement
Training to become a medical assistant or CNA is offered by the Red Cross, community colleges, online schools and through medical facilities and can take anywhere from four to six weeks. Some clinics will hire untrained and inexperienced workers and provide on-the-job training, but these opportunities may be hard to come by. Many schools offer training within medical facilities as part of their course programs as well.
CNA training programs can cost several thousand dollars, but it is possible to get financial aid to help shoulder this burden. The federal government, the military, and even hospitals themselves offer financial assistance for students of all stripes.
After completing training, you’ll need to take a competency exam that tests both your book knowledge and practical skills that were taught during training. Practice tests and study guides are freely available online, so studying for the test should be a breeze. All CNAs must take an examination before they become qualified nursing assistants.
Choosing Your CNA Career
Now that you know a little more about what being a CNA is like, and have some information about other comparable jobs, it is time to make a choice. Exploring the different online programs that are available to move you toward these medical support careers is the first step toward actually getting a degree or certificate.